Cell Structure and Function
- Nucleus: The control center of the cell is the nucleus. It has a double membrane which encases the cells genetic material for the rest of the cell.
- Plasma Membrane: It is a phospholipid bilayer that contains the structures inside the cell. This double membrane also controls what goes in and what comes out of the cell.
- Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm what takes up the space between the organelles inside the plasma membrane. Made up of a fluid called cytosol, the cytoplasm is in constant motion making it easy for organelles to interact with each other.
- Cytoskeleton: This is the skeleton of the cell and it is made up of microtubules and microfilaments. The cytoskeleton protects the cell, maintains it’s shape, and plays a role in intra-cellular transport.
5. Ribosomes: With the help of RNA, ribosomes attached to the rough ER make proteins.
6. Mitochondria: It is the powerhouse of the animal cell. The mitochondria generates ATP for the rest of the cell.Chloroplasts: Much like the mitochondria, the chlorplasts use sunlight to produce ATP in plant cells.
7. Cillia and Flagella: Both of these are external appendages that help the cell move.
8. Endoplasmic Reticulum: There are two parts the the ER, the smooth and rough ER. The rough ER is lined with ribosomes and makes proteins. The smooth ER removes toxins from the cell.
9. Golgi Apparatus: The golgi is the transporter of the cell. Proteins sent from the rough ER are sent out by the golgi to all areas of the cell or the rest of the body.
10. Lysosome: Holds enzymes that were created by the cell. The lysosome digests food and breaks down the cell when it dies.
11. Centriole: Help the cell divide in both mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles are made of microtubules.
12. Microfilament: The partner of microtubules, long thing and stringy proteins (mainly actin). Work with the microtubules to form the structure that allows a cell to hold its shape, move itself, and move its organelles.
13. Microtubules: Thick, strong spirals of thousands of proteins called tubulin.
14. Proxisomes: Single membrane containing digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic materials. Differ from lysosomes in the type of enzymes they hold. The enzymes in peroxisomes need oxygen. Absorbe nutrients the cell acquires.
Review Major Concepts
- 4 Macromolecules of life – Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids
- What are each of these made from – name their subunits (ie. Carbohydrates – sugars)
- Carbs: monosaccharides like glucose (sugars)
- Proteins: amino acids
- Lipids: fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule
- NA's: nucleotides, 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base
- Central Dogma – Genes make proteins that provide cell/organism structure and function.
- DNA in the nucleus is transcripted by RNA which moves to the rough ER. There it is translated to produce proteins. The proteins move to the smooth ER where they are transported with a tag to the golgi apperatus. In the golgi the tagged protiens tells protiens their next jobs and sends them on their way.